Download The Social Dynamics of George H. Mead by Maurice Natanson (auth.) PDF

By Maurice Natanson (auth.)

Twelve years after his beginning of Species, Charles Darwin released his Descent of guy. If the 1st publication introduced the gases of philosophi­ cal controversy to fever warmth, the second one exploded them in fiery roars. the difficulty used to be the character, the situation, and the future of genus humanum. in response to the present Genteel culture mankind was once a congregation of embodied immortal souls, each one with its fastened id, rights and tasks, residing including its immortal neigh­ bors below stipulations imposed by way of "the legislation of nature and of nature's God." Obedience or disobedience of those legislation destined all to everlasting bliss or everlasting damnation. What had grow to be known as "evolution" used to be assimilated to the culture in assorted interpretations comparable to John Fiske's, Henry Drummond's and Charles Pierce's. Their universal ten­ dency used to be to set up "evolution" as in some way the strategy wherein divine windfall ordains the stipulations less than which guy accom­ plishes his future. the most efficient competitor of the Genteel culture glided by quite a few names, with positivism, materialism and naturalism the main telling. Its luck as competitor used to be no longer as a result of its theological or metaphysical import. Its good fortune flowed from its mode of gazing how results or effects, these undesired in addition to these wanted, acquired produced. Unified and generalized, those observations have been taken for notations of causal sequences continuously and in all places an analogous, therefore for legislation of "nature" to whose workings "the windfall of God" further not anything effective and will be and used to be distributed with.

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In terms of a set of criteria which are brought to bear upon the object from a standpoint external to the process of the act in its genesis. Consummation is required by the special needs and direction of the act and not by artificial or abitrary standards. "Every act . . " "" If, as we have said, the manipulatory area is the locus of reality, according to Mead, the stage of consummation implies reference to the future. The perceptual object brought into the area of contact experience is present in a temporal sense.

The "snowball" effect of the accumulating past is denied by Mead: "the present does not carry any such burden with it. "· With Bergson, Mead deplores the "spatialization" of time," 7 but the antidote to such "spatialization" is a concept of time in which the past is more than an accumulation of what has gone by. For Mead, the past is a highly complex structure which impinges upon the present in a variety of ways. " • The past is irrevocable in its "has been" quality and is made up of the totality of that which has occurred.

Mead writes: "I am prepared to seize the object, and then in the role of the thing I resist this grasp, pushing, we will say, the protuberances of the thing into the hand and arousing more effort in the hand by the leverage which the extended portion of the object will exercise, and through these responses of the thing I reach not only the final attitude of prepared manipulation but also a physical object with an inside and an inherent nature. "" Taking the role of the object, getting "inside" the object's interior depends on the capacity of the self to react to itself as an object.

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