Download Quantum-Limit Spectroscopy by Zbigniew Ficek, Ryszard Tanaś PDF

By Zbigniew Ficek, Ryszard Tanaś

This e-book covers the most rules, tools, and up to date advancements of quantum-limit optical spectroscopy and functions to quantum info, solution spectroscopy, measurements past quantum limits, size of decoherence, and entanglement. Quantum-limit spectroscopy lies on the frontier of present experimental and theoretical strategies, and is without doubt one of the parts of atomic spectroscopy the place the quantization of the sphere is vital to foretell and interpret the prevailing experimental effects. at present, there's an expanding curiosity in quantum and precision spectroscopy either theoretically and experimentally, because of major development in trapping and cooling of unmarried atoms and ions. This growth permits one to discover within the such a lot intimate aspect the ways that gentle interacts with atoms and to degree spectral houses and quantum results with excessive precision. additionally, it permits one to accomplish sophisticated checks of quantum mechanics at the unmarried atom and unmarried photon scale which have been not often even that you can imagine as ``thought experiments'' many years in the past.

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Example text

As previously mentioned, this spectrum has been called the physical spectrum, and we now see the justification as it does represent the outcome of a realizable physical experiment. This definition is also consistent with the quantum theory of measurement, which assumes that there is no unique boundary between the physical system under the observation and the measuring apparatus. At this time we might very well ask whether the physical spectrum, which takes into account bandwidth of the spectrometer, is the most useful way of detecting available information about the investigated field.

Moreover, we note that the power spectrum is not the Fourier transform of the field amplitude Eˆ (t) itself, as is often incorrectly assumed. In fact, in the case of a stationary field, the field amplitude is, in general, not square integrable, so that the Fourier transform of Eˆ (t) may not even exist. 18 1 Quantum Fluctuations and Their Measurements For a stationary field, the correlation function of the field amplitudes depends only on the time difference τ, not on the time origin t, and therefore we often write the power spectrum as ∞ S(ω) = −∞ (−) (+) dτ Eˆ (0) · Eˆ (τ) eiωτ .

88) over all directions, specified by the solid angles d r , we obtain the total radiation intensity per unit time ˆ I(t) = d r ˆ t) . 89) The main interest here is to find the average intensity of the field emitted by an atomic system in the direction r and detected in the radiation (far-field) zone of the source atoms. 90) provided the detection point r is chosen such that it lies outside the driving field, and the background field is in a vacuum state (+) Eˆ v (r, t) |{α} = 0 . 91) The radiation intensity therefore follows directly from the atomic first-order correlation functions modulated by oscillatory factors induced by relative phases of the fields produced by spatially distributed source atoms.

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