By Martin Wegener
Following the delivery of the laser in 1960, the sector of "nonlinear optics" speedily emerged.
Today, laser intensities and pulse intervals are available, for which the recommendations and approximations of conventional nonlinear optics not follow. during this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a wide number of novel and weird results come up, for instance frequency doubling in inversion symmetric fabrics or high-harmonic new release in gases, which may end up in attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. different examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" hide various parts resembling solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic unfastened electrons in a vacuum or even the vacuum itself.
This e-book begins with an advent to the sector dependent totally on extensions of 2 well-known textbook examples, specifically the Lorentz oscillator version and the Drude version. the following the extent of class can be obtainable to any undergraduate physics scholar. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. the subsequent chapters progressively advisor the coed in the direction of the present "state of the paintings" and supply a accomplished evaluation of the sphere. each bankruptcy is followed by means of workouts to deepen the reader's knowing of vital themes, with designated ideas on the finish of the book.
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Extra resources for Extreme Nonlinear Optics: An Introduction
B) |P (ω)|2 versus pulse duration tFWHM for fixed /ω0 = 2 and φ = 0. (c) |P (ω)|2 versus φ for fixed /ω0 = 2 and tFWHM = 5 fs. Reprinted with permission from T. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 217404 (2003) . Copyright (2003) by the American Physical Society. 5 Quantum Interference of Multiphoton Absorption 41 Fig. 8. As Fig. 7, but as a function of peak Rabi energy R in units of the laser carrier frequency ω0 for fixed /ω0 = 2, φ = 0 and tFWHM = 5 fs. 7 on the vertical axis, a Rabi flop is completed even though the excitation is off-resonant for one-photon absorption .
The dots symbolize the electron occupation numbers . 34 3 The Lorentz Oscillator Model and Beyond ... Fig. 4. Illustration of (a) conventional Rabi flopping and (b) carrier-wave Rabi flopping. , the peak Rabi frequency is given by R /ω0 = 1/20 ⇒ ˜ = 2π. As a result, the inversion w (illustrated by the insets) nearly reproduces the classical result of Rabi according to w(t) = −cos( ˜ R t). A closer inspection does, however, reveal a small superimposed, staircaselike structure (the Bloch–Siegert oscillation) which is due to deviations from the rotating-wave approximation used by Rabi.
The lowest nontrivial order of the inversion w is the second order (one-photon absorption) because w is driven by the product 2 R (t) v(t). This second order contains the frequency components ω1 ± ω2 , 2ω1 , 2ω2 , ω1 − ω1 and ω2 − ω2 . Only the latter two have a nonvanishing cycle-average ... and lead to a net increase of the upper-state population f2 = (w + 1)/2 after some time, provided that the transverse damping is finite (otherwise R (t) v(t) ∝ cos(ω1,2 t) sin(ω1,2 t) = 0). All other contributions merely lead to an oscillatory component (also see w(t) in Fig.