By Radovan Šebesta
Content material: Ionically-tagged transition-metal catalysts; Catalysis with supported organocatalysts; Supported ionic liquid section catalysis; Metal-catalysts on soluble polymers; Catalytic dendrimers; Fluorous catalysts and chiral auxiliaries in biphasic and homogeneous structures; Aqueous-phase uneven catalysis; Non-covalent immobilization
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Thoroughly revised, and greatly improved, this 5th version is a well-established and profitable reference quantity designed largely for the chemical and different procedure industries, yet could be came across helpful via somebody desiring the most recent pertinent info on business solvents. This 5th variation is uniquely invaluable whilst it turns into essential to pick out a brand new solvent on a aggressive or comparative foundation; while the typical solvent, hired hitherto, may well now not be on hand, or can now not be used as a result of environmental purposes; or whilst costs have risen to such an volume that an current approach needs to be redesigned to make it economically possible back.
Content material: Ionically-tagged transition-metal catalysts; Catalysis with supported organocatalysts; Supported ionic liquid section catalysis; Metal-catalysts on soluble polymers; Catalytic dendrimers; Fluorous catalysts and chiral auxiliaries in biphasic and homogeneous platforms; Aqueous-phase uneven catalysis; Non-covalent immobilization
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Additional info for Enantioselective Homogeneous Supported Catalysis
71 described TEMPO immobilized on an ionic tag 54 and used it as the catalyst for oxidations of diﬀerent primary and secondary alcohols to aldehydes or ketones. 24 equiv. and 10 mol% of KBr). Reactions were performed in the mixture of [bmim]PF6 and water at 0 1C. Just 1 mol% of the catalyst was necessary to reach 90–95% yield in 5–10 min. 12 N N O 54 53 N N N Me BF4 or PF6 52 Me N N BF4 N Me BF4 COO H 55 N 56 O Catalysts with ionic tag for Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction and alcohol oxidations. aerobic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones.
Addition of triﬂuoroacetic acid as co-catalyst was necessary as just 33% of the addition product was isolated after 40 h in the experiment without TFA. Catalyst 2 was more active than analogous catalyst in which imidazole ring was not alkylated. The authors examined the possibility of using other ketones or aliphatic aldehydes as donors as well. Additions of acetone as well as 3-methylbutanal went smoothly, but the reaction with cyclopentanone was much slower and less selective. After 60 h product was isolated in 87% yield with syn/anti ratio 63:37 and 80% ee.
Over 90% yield of the product was isolated even after 6th cycle, and, what is even more interesting, diastereoselectivity as well as enantioselectivity were very high (syn/anti 95:5 and 91% ee respectively). Maltsev et al. have published49 very good organocatalyst 35 for Michael addition of dimethyl malonate to substituted cinnamic aldehyde. 10). The catalyst was easy to recover, after the reaction was over, by addition of diethyl ether to the reaction mixture. Precipitated catalyst was ﬁltered oﬀ and reused in the next experiment.