By Odd Helge Gilja, Hans Gregersen, Svein Odegaard
This publication is an advent for college kids and younger medical professionals first and foremost in their profession in diagnostic ultrasonography. It additionally provides the most recent in options and strategies in gastrointestinal ultrasonography. The reader will locate easy points of ultrasonography in addition to hugely complex technical and examine papers. the 1st classification could be effortless to appreciate for many readers. the second one class may perhaps require a few coaching from the scholar. All complicated papers symbolize the frontiers of knowledge.
The first few chapters take care of the elemental rules of ultrasound and its use in tissue characterization. they're via chapters at the use of ultrasound for the characterization of tissue biomechanics and on novel recommendations corresponding to 3D ultrasound and hydrosonography. The scientific purposes are defined within the previous few chapters of the ebook.
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Additional info for Basic And New Aspects Of Gastrointestinal Ultrasonography
These parameters can be determined experimentally as detailed earlier. With a similar approach, average longitudinal stress in the wall at a given pressure can be computed using the following equation: By substituting Eq. (16) into Eq. (18), the following stress-strain relations for the gastrointestinal segment in both the circumferential (θ) and longitudinal (z) directions can be obtained Sθθ = C(a1 Eθθ + a4 Ezz )eQ and Szz = C(a2 Ezz + a4 Eθθ )eQ . (21) ∗ and E ∗ are selected as the strain components at physiological presReference strains Eθθ zz sures in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, respectively.
One of the forms for the strain energy function in a two-dimensional analysis is expressed as follows (5) ρo W = C Q e 2 2 ∗2 2 ∗2 ∗ ∗ − Eθθ ) + a2 (Ezz − Ezz ) + 2a4 (Eθθ Ezz − Eθθ Ezz )] Q = a1 (Eθθ (16) (17) where ρo is the material density of the artery (mass per unit volume). W is the strain energy per unit mass, ρo W is the strain energy per unit volume, E θθ and Ezz are the circumferential ∗ and E ∗ are reference strains measured at and longitudinal Green’s strains, respectively. E θθ zz 36 H.
A force in the opposite direction will induce a negative (compressive) strain, (B) the eﬀect of twisting a tissue strip, (C) the eﬀect of bending a specimen. No strain occurs at the horizontal dotted line. Therefore, this line is called the neutral axis. On the convex side the tissue is in tension, on the concave side the tissue is in compression. ﬁnal length (Eulerian strains). Either of these strain measures are useful. In inﬁnitesimal elongations, the strain measures are equal. However, in ﬁnite elongations, they are diﬀerent which easily can be shown by examples.