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By Ytha Yu, Charles Marut

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COM. • Information stored on disk is organized into files. A file has a name and an optional extension. The BIOS routines are used to perform 1/0 operations. The compatibility of PC clones with the IBM PC depends on how well their BIOS routines match those of. the IBM PC. The BIOS routines are responsible for system testing and loading the operating system when the machine is turned on. COM control flags data segment disk operating system, DOS external commands file file extension file name flags graphical user interface, gui Routines that handle input and output operations The routine that loads the operating system during start-up Memory segment containing a machine language prQgram's instructions The command processor for DOS Flags that enable or disable certain actions of the processor Memory segment containing a machine language program's data The operating system for the IBM PC Commands that correspond to routines residing on disk .

However, It can be used on 80286, 80386, and 80486-based machines when they run in real address mode. One of the many functions performed by DOS is reading and writing inforn1ation on a disk. Programs and other information stored on a disk are organized into files. extension of a period followed by one to three characters. The extension is commonly used to ideniify the type of file. COM. are several versions of DOS, with eaciJ new version having more capabilities. 1 or later. DOS is not just one program;.

Set. This is the number of bytes from the beginning of the segment. the•offsct can be given as a 16-bit numbeL The first byte i,n a segment has offset 0. The ·last offset in a segment is FFFFh. g111C'llt:off:;et; this is known as a ·logical address. For example, A4FB:4872h means offset 4872h within segment A4l;Bh. <1ddress. md then adds the offset. Thus the physical address for A4FB:4872 is A4FBOh + 4872h A9822h (20-bit physical address) Location -of Segments It is instructive to sec the layout of the segments in memory.

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