By Barton E. Worthington
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Additional info for Arid Land Irrigation in Developing Countries. Environmental Problems and Effects
Some water for irrigation may be stored in underground aquifers. Even under such instances the quality of water may be significantly altered as a result of percolation of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes. Canals and ditches and contaminants Perhaps it is during the conveyance and distribution phase that modifications of the character of the aquatic medium are best demonstrated. Water from a stream, dam or an underground storage reservoir is affected by evaporation as it passes through the distribution system.
It has been reported that the irrigation of rice with colder water drawn from great depths may decrease yield or delay germination significantly. Although stratification of temperature may not become permanently established in shallow ponds and in tropical regions, there is doubt as to how the quality of stored water varies at different levels of depth. Some water for irrigation may be stored in underground aquifers. Even under such instances the quality of water may be significantly altered as a result of percolation of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes.
The possi bility of making use of this property at the inlets to irrigation systems should be actively investigated. Utilization of harvested weed plants for silage, compost or mulch may be feasible in certain situations. Procedures for removing water weeds by chemical, mechanical or manual means are widely practiced and could be accurately costed. However, this is seldom done and incor porated into an economic evaluation of a proposed irrigation scheme at the decisionmaking stage. Knowledge of the ecology of the plants could lead to modification of canal design which could prevent excessive growth of nuisance plants.