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The following issues emerge as a result of differences in pool proﬁle between ESR and VAR ingots: • Since a solidiﬁcation structure with dendrites parallel to the ingot axis yields optimal results for further hot working, the forgeability of VAR ingots is much inferior to that of ESR ingots. • The ESR V-shaped pool proﬁle extends the depth of the mushy zone and enhances the interdendritic fluid flow. On the other hand, the VAR U-shaped pool results in a shorter and relatively uniformly distributed mushy zone.
These factors limit the useful hot working temperature range. Furthermore, the alloy ductilities are influenced by the deformation temperature, strain rate, prior history of the material, composition, degree of segregation, cleanliness, and the stress state imposed by the deformation process. Hot Working Cycles: Superalloys have low thermal conductivity and hence need to be heated to the hot working temperature at a slow rate. The forging temperature depends on the composition of the alloy and to some extent on the heat treatment and end use.
Cobalt-Base Alloys: Hot workability of cobalt-base alloys is difﬁcult, since they contain carbon and form hard carbides. They require comparatively higher pressures than iron-base alloys. The cobalt-base alloys need to be reheated repeatedly in order to recrystallize the workpiece and lower the forging pressure. Forging parameters such as temperature and amount of reduction have considerable effect on the grain size. Coarse grains are associated with low ductility, notch brittleness and low fatigue strength.