By Marcia S. Freeman
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Extra resources for Animal Lives
Writes: The essentially Kantian idea here is that morality, as a system of equal fundamental rights and duties, is worthy of respect, and hence a completely moral person would respect it in word and manner as well as in deed. 11 Thus, we owe it to morality, not to ourselves, to maintain our self-respect. 10. Gauthier 1986; Harman 1975. 11. Hill 1973, 99. 12 But insofar as these improvements and developments have moral value, it is independent of any contribution they may make to our happiness. 14 Still, at the end of the day, Kant puts a premium on rationality and discounts happiness by making it orthogonal to rationality; his dualism is not “me versus the world” but “my rationality versus my happiness”.
Frankfurt 2004, 7. 19. Griffin 1986, 130. See Parfit 1984; Griffin 1986; Sumner 1996; Scanlon 2000; Darwall 2002; Crisp 2006; Tiberius 2008; and Haybron 2008. 21 To do so is a fundamental mistake. Surely the subject matter of morality is partly concerned with reconciling self- and other-regarding considerations; but to call other-regarding considerations “moral” and give them special standing or authority in our deliberations, simply because they are other-regarding, is to approach morality in a backward, question-begging way.
Naturally, immorality starts to look good. Moralists and egoists both see moral behavior as an often unpleasant necessity, with the egoists rejecting the necessity due to its unpleasantness and the moralists insisting upon it nonetheless. One consequence of this is that if morality is purely impartial and other-regarding, then our concerns about what is good for us from the first-person point of view, such as those that arise when we attempt to answer the Question, are not moral concerns at all.