By Karlheinz Hill, Wolfgang von Rybinski, Gerhard Stoll
Alkyl polyglycosides are a brand new new release of multi-application, ecologically secure nonionic surfactants that shape a clearly reusable source. Written by way of pioneers within the box, this name info the technological, ecological, physicochemical and function elements of alkyl polyglycosides, and discusses the present patent scenario of those new commercially manageable fabrics.
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Extra info for Alkyl Polyglycosides: Technology, Properties, and Applications
A t y p i c a l HPLC chromatogram and t h e chromatographic conditions applied are s h o w n in Figure 4. 8 bar 80 60 Split: 20 ml/min 40 Inj. : 280'C Inj. : 1 pi 20 Detector: FID, 330'C I 0 10 a c 8 fatty alcohol b Clo fatty alcohol c C12 fatty alcohol 20 30 40 50 R~~ tirne [mini d CI4 fatty alcohol e Pentadecanol Detector gas flow: Hydrogen 30 ml/min air 300 ml/min Temp. program: 45'C 3 min isotherm 5'C/min 300'C 3 min isotherm Figure 5. Fatty alcohol in alkyl polyglycoside products-determination by GC 29 Analysis of Alkyl Polyglycosides HPLC system.
The phase sequence is illustrated in Figure 2. At low temperatures, a hexagonal, a cubic and finally a lamellar phase are observed with increasing surfactant content. Differences in relation to the C,, alkyl polyglycoside phase diagram (Figure 1) can be explained by different alkyl chain length cuts and by a different number of glucose units in the molecule (see below). -%] Figure 1. -%] Figure 2. At low temperatures, a region corresponding to a solid/liquid region below the Krafft point is formed over a wide concentration range.
21. The lyotropic region which occurs at the lowest C,,,,,APG concentrations has a texture with fan-like structures. As in the case of the La, phase, there is no pseudoisomorphism in this region. The fan-like structures observed under a polarization microscope suggest the assumption that a hexagonal configuration is present. Such “brokenfocal cone textures”are characteristicof biaxial smectic thermotropic phases. The fact that the La,, phase has a lamellar rather than a hexagonal structure is supported by the formation of lamellar droplets in the two-phase L,,/isotropic solution region.