By Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu
Low Reynolds quantity aerodynamics is critical to a few normal and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and bugs were of curiosity to biologists for years, and lively examine within the aerospace engineering group, inspired by way of curiosity in micro air cars (MAVs), has been expanding speedily. the first concentration of this e-book is the aerodynamics linked to fastened and flapping wings. The e-book give some thought to either organic flyers and MAVs, together with a precis of the scaling laws-which relate the aerodynamics and flight features to a flyer's sizing at the foundation of easy geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interaction among flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters akin to the Reynolds quantity, Strouhal quantity, and diminished frequency is highlighted. a few of the unsteady raise enhancement mechanisms also are addressed, together with modern vortex, quick pitch-up and rotational stream, wake trap, and clap-and-fling.
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Additional resources for Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers
1) where u is the streamwise velocity and U is the free-stream velocity. For flow over a flat plate, the momentum thickness is equal to drag force divided by U 2 . 2) where H is the shape factor, defined as the ratio between the boundary-layer displacement thickness ␦∗ and the momentum thickness . The boundary-layer displacement is defined as →∞ ␦∗ = 0 1− u d. 3) Because of the change in flow structures, the shape factor H increases rapidly downstream of the separation point. 2), the momentum-thickness jump is sensitive to the location of transition point in the separation bubble.
15. The Great Flight Diagram gives a relation among wing loading, weight, and cruising speed. Adopted from Tennekes (1996). Wing loading (W/S): From Eq. 3), it is clear that the cruising speed depends on the wing loading: W U 2 = CL. 4) shows that, the greater a flyer’s wing loading, the faster it has to fly. 1. 1. Power functions of wing dimensions and flight parameters against body mass m. Originally compiled by Greenewalt (1975), Norberg (1990), and Rayner (1979b, 1988). 1 summarizes expanded correlations.
5 kg. Kirkpatrick (1994) found no relationship between either bending or shearing stresses and wingspan during gliding flight or during the downstroke in hovering. In general the safety factors are greater for birds than for bats. Hence birds are more capable of withstanding higher wing loading. A final conclusion by Kirkpatrick (1994) is that the stresses examined are scale independent. 2 Drag and Power Like an aircraft, a natural flyer has to generate power to produce lift and to overcome drag during flight.