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By William M. Lee, Roger Williams, Jean-Pierre Benhamou, Jacques Bernuau

Acute liver failure (ALF), or fulminant hepatic failure, is a unique medical syndrome that crosses clinical disciplines. a comparatively infrequent , ALF continues to be a tremendous concentration of scientific and study consciousness. With the arrival of transplantation, the significance of figuring out administration of ALF has taken on a brand new urgency. during this first quantity devoted to ALF, the editors assemble a exclusive crew of participants to explain the etiology, pathology and therapy of this significant syndrome. additionally lined are consensus thoughts in liver transplantation for ALF sufferers, in addition to descriptions of man-made and bioartificial liver help units. a piece on destiny remedies comprises hepatocyte transplantation, auxiliary grafts and different transitority liver help. striking for the excessive point of the authors' services, this accomplished quantity may still end up worthwhile.

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And Iwatsuki, S. 1994. Liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. ASAIOJ 40:86-8. M. et al. 1992. Toga viruslike particles in acute liver failure attributed to sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis and recurrence after liver transplantation. JMed Virol38: 71-7. , Brahm, J. et al. 1990. Persistence of hepatitis A virus in fulminant hepatitis and after liver transplantation. JMed Virol 30: 131-6. , Samuel, D. et al. 1993. Hepatitis C virus RNA and hepatitis B virus DNA in serum and liver of patients with fulminant hepatitis.

1994). Giant cell hepatitis developed de novo in only two patients after liver transplantation. However, recurrent syncytial giant cells were observed in posttransplant biopsies in five of fourteen cases. Two of these five patients died and two required repeat transplantation because of recurrent liver failure. One of the latter patients developed giant cell hepatitis again in a second allograft. While these authors could not find viral particles in livers with giant cell hepatitis, they did identify human papilloma virus 6 by PCR analysis in liver tissue from three pretransplant and four posttransplant livers.

Each of the well-characterized hepatitis viruses has been implicated in acute liver failure, but the relative frequency of this complication varies widely. 5 percent have been reported among patients with acute, symptomatic hepatitis B or E, whereas acute hepatitis A or C infections are much less commonly implicated (Krawczynski 1993; McNeil et al. 1984; Papaevangelou et al. 1984; Takano et al. 1994). The highest overall incidence of fatal hepatitis has been reported among cases of sporadic acute non-A non-B hepatitis (McNeil et al.

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